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Grade 7


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Ancient Civilizations

Mesopotamia
Egypt
Greece
Rome
China


Mauryan and Gupta Empires

Norse
Maya
Inca
Aztec
Nubian
Japan
Canadian Aboriginal





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Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC
An advanced introduction to ancient civilization that looks at a variety of ancient cultures. Discussed: Pre-history, Sumeria, Egypt, Assyria, and Persia.

Daily Life in Ancient Civilizations
This site is a collection of links to resources on a large number of ancient civilizations. There is information on: Egypt, Kush, Greece, Rome, China, India, Mongolia, the Maya, the Aztecs, the Inca, and several others.

Ancient Medicine
This site has links related to medicine in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Clicking on the “Revise” link will bring you to the information.

Silk Road Timeline
A timeline of ancient cultures, which link to articles explaining important aspects of their histories.


Mesopotamia

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An introduction to culture in Ancient Mesopotamia, where civilization first developed in what we call the Fertile Crescent.

Social Studies for Kids: Introduction to the Ancient Middle East
An introduction to some cultures that existed in Ancient Mesopotamia, including the Assyrians, Hittites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, and Persians.

Ancient Mesopotamia at the British Museum
The British Museum’s online exhibit about Mesopotamia, including information on geography, cultures, and kingdoms.

Mr. Giotto's Ancient Mesopotamia
A good resource for Ancient Mesopotamia, with pages about the history and culture of the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Neo-Babylonains.

Hammurabi's Code
A look at the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who created the earliest form of law that has been discovered so far. His laws were called Hammurabi’s Code, and was based on the principle of “an eye for an eye.”

Social Studies for Kids: Sumeria
A look at some of the cultural innovations in Ancient Sumeria. Some ideas were: saving water, the library, and the concept of business.


Egypt
7-egypt.pngSocial Studies for Kids: Ancient Egypt
An introduction to Ancient Egypt, with discussions on writing, math, government, pyramids, and the Egyptian mummies. There is also a glossary of different important terms relating to Ancient Egypt.

Mr. Giotto's Ancient Egypt
A good resource for Ancient Egypt, with pages discussing the history and culture of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.

Egypt: Daily Life
A look at the daily life of an Ancient Egyptian, focusing on family life, food, personal appearance, entertainment, with a brief discussion on government.

The Rosetta Stone
A quick explanation of what the Rosetta Stone is, and how it helped scholars to translate Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Hieroglyphics
A worksheet about Egyptian hieroglyphs, including how to translate English into hieroglyphs.

Hieroglyphic Symbols
What the individual hieroglyphs mean, and how to translate them into English.


Greece
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Social Studies for Kids: Ancient Greece
An introduction to the culture of Ancient Greece, including a discussion of the Greek polis.

Introduction to Ancient Greece
An introduction to the different periods in Ancient Greek history, with a variety of links to other associated topics.

BBC's Ancient Greece
A cute website with a variety of topics on Ancient Greece, including their history, mythology, culture, and warfare. Also includes some activities and games, as well as quizzes.

Mr. Giotto's Ancient Greece
A good source for learning about Ancient Greece, with pages focusing on different periods from the Minoan civilization to the Hellenistic Age.

Greek City-States
A look at some of the most powerful and important city-states in Ancient Greece.

Growing up in Greece
Home Life
These two links are a look at what it was like for children growing up in Ancient Greece, and what daily life was like for a typical Ancient Greek.

Social Studies for Kids: Lycurgus and Solon
A discussion of two of Lycurgus and Solon, two of the most important authors of Ancient Greek law.

Ancient Greece Government
A look at the major parts of the Greek government, including how Athenian democracy worked.

Social Studies for Kids: Ancient Greek Olympics
Looking at the Ancient Greek Olympics, which were the inspiration behind our modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

Greek Philosophy and Socrates
Greek philosophy was an inspiration for many modern ideas, this site discusses Socrates, one of the more important philosophers.


Rome

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Introducing Ancient Roman culture, including a brief overview of the government structure and the emperors.

Mr. Giotto's Ancient Rome
An excellent source for Roman history, discussing the important events and historical figures from its foundation to decline.

Families and Children in Rome
Roman families and children, and what it would have been like to grow up in Ancient Rome.

Augustus
A look at the life of the Augustus, the first Roman emperor.

Artifacts from the British Museum
The collections of the British Museum, highlighting their classical artifacts. You can search for items from specific time periods and places.

BBC's A History of the World in Artifacts
A collection of Roman artifacts from a variety of sources, with information about where they were found and why they are historically interesting.

Patricians and Plebeians
A basic look at the governing structure of Ancient Rome, and how it has influenced the modern government of the USA.



Hsia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties in China

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A timeline of Chinese civilization from the Hsia Dynasty until the modern day. Includes dates and capital cities. A short history of each major dynasty is included below the timeline.

History Timeline
A basic timeline of the major periods in Chinese history, including the Chinese characters for each dynasty.

History of China
An in-depth look at Chinese history, broken down into different periods. The Ancient Dynasties are included at the top as well as other important historical periods.

Zhou Dynasty
A look at the Zhou Dynasty, discussing the major changes and events that happened within China during this period.

A Summary of Chinese History
A site summarizing some of the main points in ancient Chinese history, separated by dynasties.

The Zhou Dynasty
A look at the Zhou Dynasty, the longest ruling dynasty in the history of China. Includes history, government, religion, and technology.

Daily Life in Ancient China
A brief look at the daily life of a citizen in Ancient China.

Chinese Inventions
A short list of some of the major Chinese inventions, including silk, paper, and gunpowder.

Ancient China: Geography
The geography of China, and how it affected the growth and development of Ancient Chinese civilizations.



Mauryan and Gupta Empires
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The Mauryan Empire
An introduction to the Mauryan Empire, including its rulers and how they were influenced by Buddhism.

The Mauryan Empire and Gupta Empire
A brief introduction to the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, discussing some of their major rulers and cultural events.

The Gupta Dynasty
A brief introduction to the Gupta Dynasty.

Mauryan Empire
An Encyclopedia Britannica article introducing the Mauryan Empire.



Norse
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Vikings
A basic introduction to a variety of topics on the Vikings.

Middle Ages: Vikings
A basic look at Viking culture in the Middle Ages.

Norse Mythology
An in-depth examination of Norse mythology.

Encyclopedia Mythica: Norse
A list of short encyclopedia articles about major figures in Norse mythology.

NOVA: Vikings
The NOVA site about the Vikings, with some informative links as well as several activities.

Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga
A discussion of Norse history in relation to their voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Topics included: archaeology, sagas, history, and their relationship with environment. Choose “Viking Voyage” from the page to access the information.



Maya
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Maya Timeline
A timeline of the Maya civilization, discussing the major events of the Pre-Classic, Classic, Post-Classic, and Colonial periods.

Maya Government
The government and laws of the Maya people.

Maya Math
Maya mathematics were done in a different way from our modern math, as they used base-20 rather than 10. This site has a brief explanation of how base-20 works, and has a converter to Mayan numbers.

Maya Writing and Calendar
A look at the Mayan system of writing, their base-20 mathematics, and their two kinds of calendar.

Maya Calendar
The Maya used two different calendars, a ritual calendar and a solar calendar. This site has a list of the different month and day names, and a converter from our calendar to theirs. You can find out what your birth date was in Mayan!



Inca

7-inca.pngInca Civilization
An introduction to and discussion of the Inca Empire, including: history, geography, social roles, industries, and culture.

Inca Empire Timeline
A timeline of the Inca civilization, with a look at the Pre-Inca Empire, the Inca Empire, and its decline.

Inca Government
The government and organization of the Inca Empire, including some of their laws and tax systems.

Inca Economy
An interesting discussion of how the economy worked in the Inca Empire.

Science and Technology of the Inca
A look at some of the technologies that the Inca used to communicate and live.

Cuzco
The city of Cuzco, the capital of the Inca Empire.



Aztec


Aztec Timeline
A timeline of the Aztec Empire, from settlement to the Spanish conquest.
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The Aztec Empire
This site has a variety of links to images from the Aztec Empire, primarily taken out of their codices and other artifacts. Interesting for those who would like to view more Aztec art and artifacts.

The Rise of the Aztec Empire
An in-depth look at the Aztec Empire.

Aztec Society
The Aztec family and social classes.

Aztec Government and Law
An examination of how the Aztec Empire was governed, discussing the political positions and their code of law.

Aztec Writing and Technology
A discussion of the Aztec system of writing, their calendar, as well as some other inventions they created.

The Conquest of the Aztec Empire
How the Spanish conquistador Cortés was able to defeat the Aztec Empire.

The Conquest of Mexico
A discussion of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, including the events before Cortés arrived at Tenochtitlan. Important terms are explained in more detail in the linked pages.



Nubia
7-nubia.pngAncient Kingdom of Kush
An introduction to the Kingdom of Kush (Nubia). Includes information about the daily life of citizens, and a discussion about trade and resources.

Nubia: History
A brief history of Nubia from the Neolithic Period until its modern independence.

British Museum's Kush Exhibit
Some worksheets from the British Museum, discussing the Kingdom of Kush through artifacts and archaeology. There are review questions for each topic.

Archaeology: Kingdom of Kush
A New York Times article on the archaeology of Kush, and how recent excavations are uncovering more information about their culture and kingdom.

Ancient Nubia: Trade
An article about trade between Ancient Nubia and Egypt.



City-State Japan
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Japanese History
An overview of the different periods in Japanese history, with examples of art and artifacts.

Japan Atlas: Historical Sites
A clickable map of major historic monuments from ancient Japan, including detailed information about each location.

Encyclopedia of World Cultures: Japan
An advanced article about the history of Japan, with a “History and Culture” section that will be of particular interest.

The Age of the Samurai
An article about the Age of the Samurai, with some review questions included.

Samurai Sisters: Early Feudal Japan
Some interesting sections from a larger essay about the role of women in Fedual Japan. Includes information about a variety of social classes.


Canadian Aboriginal

Canada’s First Peoples: Historical Overview
An introduction to the history and culture of the Canadian Aboriginal population. Links at the top to other useful pages.

Canada’s First Peoples: Peoples Before Contact
An interactive map of Canada’s First Peoples, with in-depth information about each group. Topics include: environment, housing, food, technology, religion, culture, social structure, and warfare.

Canada’s Native Peoples
An interactive map of Canada’s Aboriginal peoples, including information about their history, culture, and traditional lands.

Canada’s First People: Contact & Conflict
An article about the contact, trade, and alliances between Aboriginals and the Europeans.

Canada’s First Peoples: The Fur Trade
An article about the beginnings of the fur trade between Europeans and the Aboriginals.

Virtual Museum of New France: Explorers
Looking at the history of some early French explorers in Canada. Includes biographies, important discoveries, and maps of their explorations.

Kid’s Site of Canadian Settlement
An introduction to Canadian settlement, with information about First Nations groups as well as the various settlers that interacted with them. There is some information about the history, daily life, and culture of these different cultural groups.

First Nations & Inuit
Useful information about Aboriginal peoples including an introduction, cultural groups, shelter, clothing, food, and traditions.

First Nations Profiles
A collection of advanced government information about Aboriginal communities across Canada.

Our World – Our Way of Life (Haida & Inuit)
Information about the Haida and Inuit, with topics on culture, environment, and history.

Kids’ Stop
A site for students about Canada’s Aboriginal history, culture, and language. Includes games, biographies, and recommended books and sites to read.

Canadian Encyclopedia: Assembly of First Nations (advanced)
An advanced look at the political organization of the Assembly of First Nations. Includes the Assembly’s history, issues, and settlements.

Five Pillars: The Land
An advanced discussion about the Aboriginal relationship to the land.

Canada’s First Peoples: Language Groups
A map displaying the 11 major language families that are spoken in Aboriginal communities. Includes a discussion about Canada’s Aboriginal languages.



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Earth's Crust

Science Probe 7: Earth's Crust
Excellent links and resources for students doing the Earth’s Crust section of Grade 7 science. Activities as well as interactive resources.
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Planet Earth
A brief introduction to what the planet Earth is made of, including many useful links.

Earth's Crust
An introduction to the different layers and boundaries in the Earth’s crust.

Bill Nye: Earth's Crust
This 23-minute video features Bill Nye the Science Guy talking about the Earth’s crust.

Tectonic Plate Boundaries
Explaining the differences between the three major plate boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform.

BBC Geography: Tectonic Plates
A more advanced look at the structure of the Earth, including what tectonic plates are and how they interact.

BBC Geography: Earthquakes
Explaining the causes and effects of earthquakes, including how they are measured using the Richter scale.

Science for Kids: Earthquakes
Discussing why earthquakes happen and how they are measured.

Volcanoes
Explaining the difference between magma and lava, and defining the major types of volcano.

BBC Geography: Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptions
Discussing where and why volcanoes form, including diagrams explaining the main parts of a volcano. Includes an explanation of what happens after a volcano erupts, and two examples of major eruptions in the past.

BBC Geography: Classification of Rocks
The differences between the three major rock types, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic, are explained with sample photographs.

Rock Cycle
A discussion of the process of rock formation, including how the different steps in the rock cycle are connected.

Earth Floor: Cycles
An introduction to the basic concepts that make up the rock cycle.



Chemistry

7-chemistry.pngScience Probe 7: Chemistry
Excellent links and resources for students doing the Chemistry section of Grade 7 science. Activities as well as interactive resources.

Chem4Kids: Matter
An introduction to the concept of matter, including how matter can change states. Continue clicking "Next Stop on Site Tour" to reach more information about different states of matter.

Chem4Kids: the Atom
An introduction to the concept of atoms, and how they can combine to make different elements.

Chem4Kids: Solutions
Some good information about what a solution is, and how they are formed. Includes a link to a discussion about mixtures as well.

Chemical Mixtures
Looking at the differences between solutions and mixtures, including definitions of the concepts of heterogeneous and homogeneous.

Separating Mixtures
How mixtures can be separated using processes such as filtration, distillation, and centrifuging.

Chem4Kids: Acids and Bases
What acids and bases are, and how they are measured using the pH scale.

Acids & Bases
Some of the different properties of acids and bases, and a list of some common acids and bases found in daily life.



Ecosystems

Science Probe 7: Ecosystems
7-ecosystems2.pngExcellent links and resources for students doing the Ecosystems section of Grade 7 science. Activities as well as interactive resources.

BBC Geography: Human Uses of Rainforests
The impact that humans have on rainforest ecosystems.

BBC Geography: Describing Climatic Trends
An advanced discussion of how the Earth’s climate has been changing over time. Includes causes and effects.

Species at Risk Registry
This is the official Canadian list of wildlife species at risk. It includes species that are endangered, threatened, extinct, and of special concern.

Species at Risk: Glossary of Terms
A glossary of terms relating to at-risk species in Canada.

Biology4Kids: Photosynthesis
An explanation of how photosynthesis works in plants.

BBC Biology: Seeds and Germination
The parts of seeds and how they grow, including some videos.

BBC Biology: Photosynthesis
The ideas behind photosynthesis, including a video and a rap song about how it works.

Kids do Biology: Biomes
An introduction to biomes, with links to pages on a variety of land and water biomes that include descriptions of the plants, animals, and weather that can be found there.

BBC Geography: Biomes
An interactive map of the world’s biomes, with a brief discussion of the characteristics of each type.

Windows to the Universe: Biomes
A map of different biomes around the world, with links to pages about tundra, taiga, temperate and tropical forests, desert, grassland, and the ocean.

DesertUSA
An introduction to the desert biome in North America.

7-ecosystems.pngWindows to the Universe: the Ocean Biome
An introduction to the ocean biome, with information about four different types of environments in the ocean.

Food Chains
A very basic introduction to food chains, and what producers and consumers are.

Chain Reaction! Build a Food Chain
A simple little game about the different steps in a food chain. Includes a discussion of what the differences are between a carnivore, herbivore, and omnivore.

Food Chains and Food Webs
A look at how what looks like a simple food chain is part of a larger food web with many different plants and animals involved. The concepts of producer, consumer, and decomposers are defined.

BBC Science: Food Chains, Energy in Biomass
A look at food chains, how energy is transferred along the food chain, and the definitions of several important words.



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Dividing Fractions
Division of fractions, including a short animation on how to make a reciprocal.

Percentages
A look at percentages, including some practice exercises.

How to Multiply Decimals
An easy video about how to multiply decimals.

Multiplying Negatives
How negative numbers work, including how to multiply them.

Integers
A lesson on adding and subtracting integers using number lines. Some exercises are included.

BBC Math: Circles
A review of the concept of pi, and how it’s used to figure out circumference and area of circles.

Math Videos
A list of videos about lots of different math concepts. Included are: numbers, arithmetic, fractions, percent, algebra, decimals, ratio, measurement, and geometry.

Linear Equations
A discussion of linear equations, including some exercises and examples.